CP Jewelry trademark for Phyichris Corp., Providence RI since 1962
C Inside an upside down shield - Jewelry trademark for Richton Intl., NY since 1970
C Inside a Shield - Jewelry trademark for Harold Weiss/Crest Jewelry NY since 1945
C With a triangle - Jewelry trademark for Charles Mfg. Providence RI since 1962
C-Star Jewelry trademark for Craft Ring and Finding Co. since 1962
CA Within an oval with piercing arrow - CARL ART, Inc. since 1937
CB Jewelry trademark for Collison Bros., Phil. Pa since 1962
CC Double inside "C" jewelry trademark for Allan L. Seltzer of Chatham Creations since 1962
C-C Jewelry trademark for James J Burke St Louis Mo since 1952
C.C. Jewelry trademark for Curtman Co., Providence RI since 1950
CM Jewelry trademark used by Ciner Mfg, NY since 1914. The "MC" is in a vertical recetangle
C.T. Cheever, Tweedy & Co., Inc. North Attleboro Mass. c. 1880
C-Clasp The closure for a brooch up until approximately 1890
Caballeros De Deimas Jewelry mark since 1921, San Francisco
Cabochon Stone cut with a smooth, domed surfae with no facets. Stones most often used include turquoise, quartz and jade.
Cacharel Paris France Perfumery c. 1978 "Anais Anais"
Cadillac Trademark for Parkway Mfg. Providence RI since March 1960
Cadoro Jewelry trademark for Cadora, NY from approx. 1955 until the early 1980's. Used quality materials, unusual designs. and materials from European markets.
Cagework Handcut, pressed, decorative metal encasins over a glas bottle, etc. applied over the glass or base not on it.
Calder, Alexander 1898-1976 postwar modern jewelry designer.
Calf Links Trademark for Joseph J. McDermott NY since 1956 for chains, beads, etc.
California Maid Trademark for N athanial M. Kirschner, Los Angeles since March 1931 for pendants, charms, brooches, gold or silver plated
California Perfume Co NY NY c. 1927 "Sonnet", "Topaz", Now Avon Inc.
Cairngorm Smoky quartz in grey-brown from Scotland and used during Queen Victoria's reign. It is sometimes (incorrectly) called "Scottish Topaz". Considered Celtic Jewelry
Calder, Alexander Sculture/jewelry designer born 1898 in Philadelphia. Died 1976
Calibre Form of cudtting a gemstone in order to fit a particular setting
Calling Card Trademark for Future House, Inc., Omaha NE since 1955 for jewelry and accessories
Callot Soeurs Perfumery, Paris France, NY, c. 1925 "Bao", "Marriage D'Amour"
Calvaire Jewelry trademark for Calavaire, Inc. NY 1935-60. Their pieces contain minute detail and superb stones. Ormolu and wiring as well as use of enamel. Mark is "Calvaire" within a small circle and it is thought that many were unmarked.
Cambay Ancient trade center and port on the west coast of India
Cameo Bas-Relief feature carved from hardstone, shell, coral, lava, jet, gemstone, bog oak, etc. Usually one color forms the background and another, the features, whether naturally or applied. A cameo cut within a concave depression with the highest part of the feature equal to the edge of the stone is called a Chevett, Chevee, Curvette or Cuvette. Very popular during the Victorian period and carved from onyx, sardonyx, cornelian, as well as the black helmet and pink and white queen conch shell. Stone cameos are generally m=ore valuable than shell, although shell cameos were more popular. Scenic cameos are more expensive than the bust or profile type, generally. "Rebecca At The Well" was a popular subject s. 1860. Mythological figures were also popular. Cameos were set in all types of media from pot metal to gold and silver. Later cameos were carved from bakelite and other thermoset plastics.
Cameo Habille Cameo in which there is an additional ornamentation of a necklace or earrings with tiny gemstones or pearls.
Can Compact Early 20th century vanity case that contained a removeable interior so it coule be used for multi-storage, ec.
Canasta Trademark for Sperry Mfg Co in Providence RI since 1948 for their line of bracelets, scatter pins, etc. Logo written in script
Canasta (Printed) Trademark of Castlemark NY from September 1949 for jewelry items.
Candida Trademark for William Rand of NY from 1946 for jewelry items
Candlelight Trademark for Weinreich Brothers Co., NY since 1947 for jewelry items
Cane Long rod of drawn out glass ready to melt and use in ornamentation or decoration
Cannetille Open wirework done mostly in the Georgian Period
Canovas, Isabel Fashion accessory and jewelry designer. Worked for Dior and Vuitton. Became known in her own right c. 1980's
Canvas Work Victorian bead embroidery done on canvas backing and seen on footstools, tea cosies, trays and slippers
Capri Trademark used by Hickok Mfg Co. for their cuff links, etc. since 1954
Capri Jewelry design mark - See De Nicola  1952-1977
Capucci Perfumery Paris France c. 1960 "Graaffitti", "Yendie".
Car Mates Jewelry trademark used by Joseph M Rubin and Sons NY since 1955
Carat Unit of weight for gemstones. Metric Carat was set as 1/5 gram or 200 milligrams since 1913. Used with cut and uncut gemstones. Carat is only one of the 4 "C's" (See Diamond) in judging gemstones.

Unit (Karat) is used to determine the purity of metal - 24 Karat being pure gold. Most gold is too soft to use in jewelry therefore other metals are combined lessening the "Karat" to 9, 14, 18 or 22 karats. A test using acid is used to determine the Karat value of gold.
Carbuncle Another name for a garnet
Carcanet (Car ka net) Necklace or collar usually jeweled or beaded
Cardin, Pierre Perfumery, Paris France c. 1976 "Cardin"

Jewelry trademark for Pierre Cardin, Venice Italy born and moved to France 1950-present. Pieerre Cardin worked for Schiaparelli and for Dior in Paris before establishing his own house c. 1950 in fashion design. He is considered to be the founder of the "Unisex" trend in fashion and paved the way for men's fashion accessories. "Swank" is the mens acessory licensee for the Cardin line in the United States and they have recently gone out of business.
Cardinal Trademark used by Bauman-Massa, St. Louis in jewelry items since 1935
Caress Jewelry trademark used by Weinreich Bros, NY since 1949
Caribbean Summer Jewelry trademark used by Avon Productsw, NY since 1970
Carle, Jewels By Trademark used for Crescent Jewelry, Richmond VA since 1952
Carmen Trademark used by Associated Attleboro Mfg. MAs since 1900 for jewelry items
Carnegie, Hatatie 1919 - 1970's. Farmous fashion and jewelry designer who immigratd from Austria. She had an uncanny sense of fashion ofr the American woman and initiated the "Little Carnegie Suit". She expanded her line in jewelry, fashion and perfume with the help of her husband, John Zanft, who was a former VP of Fox Studios. Several designers joined her - Norman Norrell and Madine Effront. Many of Hattie's designs were outrageous and fantasy filled which made them all the more popular. Another side of her design ability was soft and romantic with delicate crystals and stones. Hattie passed away in 1956 at the age of 70 and in 1965 rights to her jewelry line were sold to Larry Josephs who continued with the production until the 1970's. Other marks for Hattie Carnegie were "Drega" c. 1965. Her "Carte Blanche" perfume bottles are unique and collectible. They feature a woman's head as the stopper. The hair is in rolled curls. The larger bottle is clear glass with the raised name accented with gold. The smaller bottle is covered entirely with the gold paint.
Carnelian Variety of chalcedony quartz, distinguished by its red/brownish color. It was originally named "Cornelian" but changed in the 15th century. It is actually derived from the Latin word "Cornum" meaning "Cornel Berry". Carnelian was a favorite of the Victorians. It is the alternative birthstone for July and is astrogically in the House of Virgo. The Egyptians used carnelian extensively as a talisman and in ormanamentation. As a talisman it was believed to have the power to drive away evail. It was believed to preserve life and is mentioned in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. It is also said that Napoleon carried a carnelian with him during his campaign in Europe. A ring of carnelian was thought to make a man peaceful and slow to anger, but dignified in a dispute. The carnelian stone today expressed warmth and friendliness and love of life.
Carol Jewelry trademark used by Mark Henfield & Sons, Cleveland OH since 1953
Carol Antell Jewelry company in NY since 1943
Carol-Deb Jewelry trademark used by Carol Deb Company, Pawtucket RI since 1949
Carol Westlake Jewelry copany, Cincinnati OH since 1954
Caron Perfumery Paris, France c . 1906 - "Bal Amour", "Nuit D'Noel", "Bellodgia"
Carousel Trademark used by Bemex Corp., Union NJ since 1955
Carraca Trademark used by Cohn and Rosenberger (Coro) Inc. since 1940
Carre Set Refers to round stone set in a square setting
Carryall Refers to purse/cosmetic case combination
Carsta Jewelry company in Providence RI from 1946
Cartier Jewelry shop founded in 1847 by Louis Francois Cartier as a small shop in P aris. The London branch was opened in 1902 and the New York branch in 1903.. They are credited with making the first wristwatch c. 1904. Business passed from 4 generations until it became public ownership in the early 1960's. Claude Cartier (d. 1975) was the last Cartier to head the company. Mark is LFC in a diamond shaped shield and AC with a hatchet graphic
Cartier Perfumery, Paris France 1981 "Panthere"
Carter NY NY c. 1925 Perfumery (Dermany Inc)
Cartouche A tablet usually decorated and engraved with letters or symbols
Carving To carve, create or decorate a form or decoration by cutting into, whittling on, scraping, hollowing, out, etc.
Casein Type of plastic made of solid milk protein also galled Galalith
Casino Trademark used by Castlecliff, Inc. since 1957
Cassandre (Adolphe Mouron) 1901 - 1968 Born in Russia and designer of jewelry for Georges Fouquet in the mid 1920's
Cast Jewelry making technique
Castellani, Fortunato 1793 - 1865 Exquisite artisan and designer of gold jewelry. His work was carried on by his two sons Allesandero and Augusto. Fortunato was sknown for his etruscan and greek reival jewelry. Known as "Italian Archaeological Jewelry". Examples of their designs are in museums all over the world.
Castillo, Los Jewelry trademark used by the Castillo brothers in one of Taxco/s largest silver shops. Mark used 1930 - present. They used sterling silver with inlays and combinations with copper and brass. Also spectacular enamells. Highest quality Mexican designed jewelry bringing top prices and collectibility.
Castle Trademark used by J R. Wood & Sons since 1931
Castlecliff Jewelry mark used by Clifford Furst c. 1945-1970. Their pieces are good quality with sometimes bold designs and large unusual stones. It was sold in the finest stores being of the highest quality. Much in demand is the mythological horse bracelet.
Caswell Massey Perfumery NY NY c. 1958 "Number 6" - True fragrances/florals and natural cosmetics
Cat's Eye Usually refers to the translucent honey color stone chrysoberyl. which has a line of light through the stone that flashes when turned much like the star sapphire. When this same optical effect is found in grey-blue quartz it is referred to as Falcon's Eye.
Catch Any type of fastener
Cathe Cathe Jewels, Inc., Torrance CA since 1961
Cavalier Trademark used by Dolan & Bullock, Providence RI since 1954
Caviness, Alice Jewelry designer c. 1940-1965. She began in the fashion garmant business and carried over her artistic flair and imagination into her jewelry. Always of the highest quality and highly collectible when found. Solmeetimes, especially on earrings the name was shortened. She loved the feminine bead and pearl collages so popular during this period. All items were hand wired with creative care. Her designs will always be among the most desired and treasured.
Cavu Company in Downey CA for jewelry items since 1945
Cecile Jewelry trademark used by Stein & Ellgogen Co., Chicago since 1925
Cheever, Tweedy & Co., Inc. Jewelry Mfg Attleboro Mas since 1945. Used trademark CeeTee
Celeste Jewelry trademark for China Overseas NY sincew 1945
Cellini, Benvenuto 1500-71. Celebrated jewelry artisan and designer or renaissance period. Extensive use of enamel and pearls.
Cellini Trademark of Amtomatic Gold Chain Company, Providence RI for jewelry since 1930
Celluloid Invented by John Wesley Hyatt in 1869 partly as a result of an incentive offered by Phelan and Collander. A large American Billard Supply Company needed to find a replacement for the rising cost of ivory which was used to make billiard balls ! Celluloid is actually the trade name for "Semisynthetic Pyroxylin-Camphor Thermoplastic. It was used for everything from buttons, jewelry and dresser accessories to toys and billiard balls. Celluloid is highly flamable and will crack and/or darken with age. The gaes given off by deteriorating celluoloid can damage other pieces so care should be taken to store it seperately. A "hot pin" test can be used to determine celluloid.. It has a strong camphor odor. If the pin test could possibly cause damage, you can also get a not quite so strong odor by just immersing the item in a shallow bowl of hot steaming water. A word of caution, though, a later form of celluloid (lumarith) will smell of vinegar and wtill be damaged from a too long immersion in the hot water. To clean celluloid use vegetable oil or soapy water. Another method I have used with success is "Armor All" used for cleaning vinyl in cars. Never use a solvent such as nail polish remover or anything with acidic ingredients.
Celtic Refers to jewelry associated with Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Brittany that became popular during the Victorian period with Queen Victoria's love of the designs and stones. Some of the designs were based on the St. Andrew's Cross. Cairngorm, Amethyst and pearls from Scotland were used as well as the colorful agates most always set in silver or sterling. Other items popular in Celtic jewelry include broooches and pins, heavy neckpieces of twisted and deorative metal called "Torques", ear clasps, bracelets, etc. Popular motifs incorporate elaborate knotwork designs whicih have an art nouveau look. "Miracle" is a jewelry manufacturer that produces quality reproductions of this type of jewelry.
Celtic Knot Interlaced motif used in Celtic jewelry also called Entrelac. Style was revived by the British Arts and Crafts movement
Cepka, Anton Jewelry designer/artist born 1936 in Sulekovo, Czech.
Ceramic Any type of fired pottery - faience, terraccota, earthenware, stoneware, porcelain and raku
Ceramic Transfer Complicated technical procedure where designs are engraved on a copper plate then inked and the impression is transferred to a piece of tissue paper, then again transferred to a piece of porcelain to be decorated or hand painted. A permanent glaze is then applied. Fired in the kiln and unless it is scratched, it retains the original design intact. These were applied not only to porcelain tableware but to brooches, hatpins, etc. for "parlor arts" and jewelry designers.
Cerda, Fulco Santostefano Della Originally from Sicily. Began his career as a textile designer for Chanel. He eventually became the chief jewelry designer. Designed pieces such as The Chanel Chessmen, Hummingbirds and Coats of Arms Jewelry
Certified Trademark used by Katz & Ogush, Inc. NY since 1923
Cezanne Jewelry trademark used by Joseph H Meyer Bros NY since 1957
Cha Cha Jewelry trademark for Joseph O Morrissey Dambala Co., St. Louis MO since 1959
Chains Series of links of various sizes either all of line size or mixed and fastened one to the other making a "chain". Most popular was the neckchain with a clasp to attach a pendant, watch, lockeet, etc. When Queen Victoria married Albert in 1849 there was immediately a chain named for him "The Albert Chain" which was fixed with a lapel bar on one end and a swivel or tongue at the other end and draped across the chest. A similar word is "Festoon". A "Victoria" or "Queen" chain was much shorter and usually had several charms dangling from it. Over the centuries chains have probably been the most versatile jewelry item. Made in a variety of metals, precious and plain. The vest chain was popularized by Charles Dickens when he first visited America and properly called the "Dickens Vest Cchain". The firm of Hamilton and Hamilton in Providence RI claimed to be the first maker of gold filled O chains in America. Chains still enjoy a great popularity in all sizes and forms in todays fashion and accessory market.
Chalcedony The generic term for semi-precious stones such as quartz, agate, cornelian, jasper, etc. "Sard" is also a member of the family and has a brown/red color as does "sardonyx". It is named after the Greek Seaport Chalcedon.
Chalet Jewelry trademark of Max Perschek, NY since 1 929
Chameleon Finish Finish that reflects the light. Usually done with lacquer
Chamfered Having bezeled or cut corners
Champion Jewelry trademark of Taunton Pearl Works, Inc. Mas since 1921
Champleve Enamel decoration made by pouring the enamel into cut recesses in the base metal and then firing. See enameling.
Chan, Kai Jewelry designer/artist born 1940 in China
Chanel, Gabriele (1883-1971) "Coco" as her friends called her will always be remembered and associated as a true individualist with a "Gamin-like" quality. Unsurpassed in the fashion world she is remembered for her many designs including the slim black suit with floppy bow toe, her perfume "Chanel No 5" (incidently, named after her birthdate) and her classical jewelry designs. She was fascinated by the costume jewelry field where a woman could wear fortunes that cost nothing! Her chanel pearls will withstand any trend chnges that come along. Original chanel jewelry items continue to skyrocket in price. While cheaper reproductions remain just that. Her designs will continue to inspire the designers of tomorrow. The mark continues in use today. Coco truly believed that "imitation is the sincerest form of flattery" and her jewelry reflected this. Chanel also designed some diamond jewelry for the International Guild of Diamond Merchants. Count Etienne De Beaumont and Duca De Verduci also designed jewelry for Chanel. Karl Lagerfeld is now the designer for the House of Chanel. Her most known designs which remain in fashion toay are the 3 piece suit, the little-nothing short evening dress, tailored long dress and the molten glass and pearl jewelry set in heavy gilt with chains. She truly transcended all generations, ages and types of women wearing her designs.

Channel Setting


Row of equal sized square or rectangular stones fitted into a channel to hold them in place.


Chantall Thomass Since 1975 Paris fashion designer also accessories, jewelry and perfume. Known for sexy lingeree and glamour in 18 countries.
Chaplet String of beads worn on the head or a small rosary
Charity Pendant depicting a figure group of charity with 2 or 3 children, sometimes together with her sisters - Faith and Hope.
Charbert Perfumery NY NY 1945 "Warning"
Charel Jewelry Co., Brooklyn NY sine 1945
Charles of the Ritz Perfumery NY NY c. 1950 "English Garden". Also cosmetic mfg.
Charlotte type of embroidery beads that are faceted on the outside
Charlotte Jewelry trademark of Gemex Company NJ for watch bracelets, belt buckles, etc. since 1920
Charm Several meanings - the oldest is that object with a magical property or a sort of talisman. Now used to describe ornaments that have the ability to dangle from a chin or other ornament singly or in multipes, such as in a charm bracelet
Charm case Hollow Pendant or case that contains a charm or other precious talisman
Charm Girl Jewelry trademark used by Originalities of NY Inc, Long Island for children's jewelry since 1953
Charm String An ornamental necklace or belt made of buttons strung together - popular during the 1880's
Charmbels Jewelry trademark used by Associated Mfg, Providence RI using previous or semi-precious metals since 1945
Charmers Trademark of Coro, Inc. NY since 1959
Chasing Method of decorating the surface of metal by the use of punches and a hammer
Chatelaine Clasp or hook from which was hung all manner of household items and necessities - watches, thimbles, scissors, keys, charms, perfume, clips, etc. The word is from the French meaning "Mistress of the Castle" and the earliest were most certainly useful for such a person ! After the 17th century, chatelaines became more of a decorative jewelry item than utilitarian and often contained whimsical items. Some were magnificant and elaborately decorated. The word is also used the mean the hook plus its pendants. They were made of pinchbeck, gold, silver and cut steel.
Chatelaine Case Vanity case for chatelaines that came in many shapes and sizes. They frequently contained puff boxes, the puff, pins, mirror and decorated with enamel. Some were even set with gems similar to the ones in the actual Chatelaine. It was a combined beauty and utility case which appealed to the lady's artistic sense while serving her needs for storing these items.
Chatham Synthetic emeralds developed by CFarroll Chatham in San Francisco in 1935. They have emeralds the same structure, but are more blue green in color and tend to have wispy black spots and veillike inclusions. Under black light they foresce red in the long wave and yellow/orange to olive green in the short wave. Natural emeralds do ot floresce or at best show a very dull dark response, so a black light wil easily distinguish a Chatham Emerald from the real thing.
Chaton French term for "Bezel" i.e. ornament at the top of a finger ring. Also meaning a faceted glass round stone backed witih foil usually with a pointed back.
Chatoyancy Play of light like in a cat's eye or any gemstone. Another term for this is schiller.
Chatoyant Stones showing this include Cat-s eye, moonstones, star stones, etc. and are always cut en cabochon
Chaumet & Cie One of the leading French jewelry firms founded in 1780 by Etienne Nitot. They were commissioned to make Napoleon's coronation crown and sword and also the wedding jewelry for Marie Louise in 1810. They were popular for their Art Deco designs.
Chavin Jewelry and objects of pre Columbian originating from Peru made during the period of the Chavin culture c 900-500 BC
Chenier Fine follow tube used for the "mechanics" of jewelry such as hinges, catches, joints, etc.
Chermy Perfumer NY NY c. 1920 "Biarritz"
Cherry Opal Reddish colored variety of opal
Cherub Dimpled, unclothed figure of the Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo periods. Used in ornamentation. Most often winged, if uwinged, the figure is referred to as a Putti. If carrying a bow and arrow the figure is called "Cupid". These figures are said to be a representation of Eros, the Greek God of Love. This style of ornamentation was much loved and used by the Victorians.
Cherubin Jewelry trademark used by Coro NY since 1956
Chess Mary Perfumer, NY NY c. 1930's "Chessmen"
Chevron Type of trade bead originally Veneetian, usually red, white and blue with conical ground down ends. Also called Paternoster, Roset, Star Bead. The pattern is used in other ornamentation.
Alternative Meaning - French for "Rafter" in ornament - a zig zag design or molding - continuous lines of "v's". Frequently used in Norman and Gothic designs.
Chez Lindelle Trademark for Louis Kipnis & Sons, Inc. NY since 1949
Chi Chi Trademark for Davette Products, Inc. Jewelry since 1955
Chicken-Bond Jade Type of Nephrite (jade) that as a result of having been buried in sand loses deep saturation and results in an outer brownish skin
Chicot Pearl Same as a blister pearl


Cinerama Jewelry


Jewelry trademark for Marvella, Inc. NY since 1951 famour for pearls.

Foundded by Ralph Rafaelian in 1966. Later changed name to Rafaelian

Chinesse Art Symbols CLICK HERE
Chinese Character Chart CLICK HERE
Chinese Jade Misnomer for green aventurine quartz or for jadeite which is carved in China but not made there.
Chinese Key Design or geometric form similar to the Greek key
Chinoiserie Chinese type or Chinese like decorative motifs,, gay, picturesque
Chiriqui Articles/jewelry of Pre-Columbian made in Chiriqui region which is now the border of Costa Rica an Panama c. 1858-60
Choice A term used to describe above average condition - better than usual
Choker A close, tight fitting necklace - a necklace just long enough to circle the throat. Popular in Victorian times was a single slim ribbon around the throat of grosgrain or velvet. The the ribbon was added a brooch wither center of off center determined by the particular fashion of the day. Chokers have been popular for over 100 years and are made using many other materials other than ribbons. Popular during the Art Deco period were silver chains some with bakelite accents.. Also See Dog Collar necklace
Christian La Croix Contemporary jewelry designer - bold quality designs
Christy M Delmas Jewelry mfg NY since 1946
Chrysoberyl Gem family popular in Victorian times i.e. Cat's eye, Alexandrive and Chrysoberyl, an asparagus green clear stone sometimes wrongly called olivine.
Chrysoprase Apple green dyed chalcedony. It has a cloudlike rather than brillian color. Very popular in Art Nouveau and Art Deco periods. It is sometimes mistaken for jade. The name comes grom the Grek "Chrysos" meaning golden and "Prase" meaning Leek. 11th century Byzentine manuscript of Michael Psellius relates thaat Chrysoprase was used for healing in vision and to relieve internal pain.
Churriguersque Bold and massive Spanish baroque style of the 17th century
Chute, A La Classical type of necklace of pearls in the form of a single strand 42 cm long of graduated pearls.
Cinderella Jewelry trademark for Blanchard & Company Inc NY since 1928
Ciner Jewelry designer, NY since 1892. Founded by Emanuel Ciner. They used Swarovski rhinestones and gold plating in most designs. The line is still operated by the family and some of the original designs are still being made. High quality with each piece signed "Ciner"
Cineramic Jewelry trademark used by Anson in Providence RI for Men's jewelry since 1952
Cini Jewelry designer useing sterling 1922-1970. Other jewelry from 1993 - present. In the 1940's Cini presented a zodiac line in sterling that was very popular and collectible today. Quality in design and manufacture.
Cinnabar The only important ore of Mercury. It is brilliand Red or vermillion mineral which is used as a red pigment. Most popular in China. The color was often referred to as "Dragon's blood". It is highly prized by Chinese artisans who use it for dying. Inlay work for jewelry and other ornamentation - boxes and fans.
Cipher Intertwined Monogram
Cipra Jewelry trademark used by Dickson Mfg Providence Ri since 1946
Circle Geometric "Bullseye" used by Ostsby and Barton as jewelry trademark since 1914
Circlet Head ornament on the form of a complete circle worn above the brow and slightly tilted back. Popular in the Victorian period.
Cire Perdue (French) Meaning lost wax - Ancient process of casting jewelry or small items that will be displayed "in the round". The method was probably first used in Egypt around the XII Dynasty. This method is still used.
Ciro Perfumery NYNY c. 1920's "Acclaim". Their perfume "Bouquet Antique" was bottled in a black enamel bottle decorated with a floral stopper.
Ciro Jewelry trademark for Ciro Pearls Limited, London England (Bond Street) since 1917. Also "Ciro of Bond Street" NYsince the 1920's
Cirolite Jewelry trademark for Ciro of Bond Street NY since 1970
Citrine Crystalline variety of quartz with a varying color from yellow to reddish orange. Popular during the Victorian period, it was sometimes mistaken for Topaz.. The word "Citrine" was derived from the French word for lemon - Citron. It was once carried as a talisman protecting aganst plaque epidemics and eveil thoughts. Also used to protect against snakes, reptiles and insects.
Clairol Trademark of Clairol, Inc. NY and used on their jewelry since 1962
Clasper Jewelry trademark of Eisenstadt Mfg Co., St. Louis MO since March 1923
Clasps Fastening devices. The "Push In" type is the oldest form of clasp on a bracelet or necklace. Brooch clasps had simple hooks under which a pin shank was held in plae. Eventually safety catches were added. The "Ball Clasp" safety consists of a 3/4 circle with a small lever type tab which completes the round and securely locks the brooch or pin. It was innovated in the year 1911. The "Spring Ring" clasp is a tiny circle with a push pin on a spring which opens and springs shut for closure. This is the most common type of clasp device. Clasps with a chain and pin safety feature were worn prior to 1890 while the safety clasp was after 1900.. Ornamental clasps were worn until the 1930's and then came the simple screw barrel type followed by a chain with an open "fish hook".
Classical Jewelry Made in Greece during Classical period from age of Pericles c. 475BC to 323BC when after the conquests of Alexander the Great, foreign influences were found in Greek styles and techniques.
Claudette Jewelry trademark for Premier Jewelry, NY since 1945
Claw Setting Gem setting that holds stone securely between prongs. Allows light to enter from the back of the stone. Nearly all diamonds (except pave set) are set this way. Became popular in the 19 th century. However do not hold this a hard and fast rule that all precious stones are "open settings". Some older jewelry contained closed back diamonds and other preciouis gems.
Clear Glass Glass that is transparent, see through, no color.
Cleo Jewelry trademark used by Clarence Edson, Cleveland OH for jewelry with faux pearls since 1921. Used script mark.
Cleo Jewelry trademark also used by Klein & Muller, Inc. NY since 1959
Cleopatra Jewelry trademark used by Samstag & Hilder Bros. Inc NY for novelty jewelry items since 1922
Cleopatra Bracelet Made by Georges Foquet from a design by Alphones Mucha for Sarah Bernhardt to wear in her role as Cleopatra.
Click-O Jewelry trademark used by Wm Fisher NY for clip fasteners since 1922
Click Of The Month Trademark used by David Grad NY for jewelry since 1945
Clip Type of brooch with a hinged back instead of a clip back. Popularized in the Art Deco period until around 1940. Some had a double pronged pin for fastening instead of a clip. Some clips were referred to as "Fur Clips", "Dress Clips" etc. for obvious reasons.
Clip Back Used to refer to the fastening device for holding earrings to the ear.
Clip Ease Jewelry trademark used by Coro Inc since 1941
Clip Mates Jewelry trademark used by Trifari< Kurssman and Kishel NY for dress clips since 19 36
Clipper Jewelry trademark used by Taunton Pearl Works, Mass. since 1944
Climatest Jewelry trademark used by Forstner Chain Corp NJ since 1949
Cloissonne (Kloi Zo Na) Enameling in which thin wire (silver, gold, copper or bronze) is guilded and bent to form cells (cloisons) then filled with enamel. Each color is in a seperate compartment and each compartment separated by thin wire. Primarily an oriental craft. Much beautiful jewelry has been designed using this method of enameling. It was also used in making ornamental vases, boxes and sculptures.
Closed Back Mounting Setting of a stone where the back of the stone is covered allowing no passing of light.
Cloudrift Jewelry trademark for Coro Inc, NY since 1950
Clutch Usually refers to a carryall/purse held in the hand
Coates, Kevin Jewelry designer/artist born in 1950 in Kingston, England
Cobb Jewelry Mfg Co. in Providence RI for clasps, mountings, bases, etc. since 1957
Cocktail Set Trademark used by Coro Inc NY for jewelry items made with precious metals or plated since 1947
Coeur De Feu Jewelry trademark for Illinois Watch Co./Elgin American Division since 1950. Used for mostly simulated pearl jewelry items
Cofferet Small box for rings, small valuables
Cohn & Rosenberger Jewelry mfg co in NY with trademark of the flying horse. (Also see Coro and numberous other marks) since 1939
Cohn, Susan Jewelry designer/artist born 1952 in Australia
Coin Silver 90% silver and 10% other metal. Used mostly on watch cases, fobs and other jewelry items. The reason for the name is that at one time the content of coins was 90%. Also see coin jewelry.
Colett's Jewelry trademark for Vincent Coletta, Johnston RI since 1963
Colgate Jersey City NJ c. 1860's Perfumery "Alba Violet", "Cashmere Bouquet", Also cosmetics - Florient Face Powder c. 1930's
Collaert, Hans 1540-1632 designer of jewelry from Antwerp
Collar Buttons Made stronger than shirt studs. A collar button had to fasten the collar tightly around the throat. Parks Bros and Rogers in Providence RI were makers of the "Parkroger". The original collar button in one piece. They were made in many shapes and designs even had Masonic symbols. Ladies also made use of the collar button and wore them in sets with cuff buttons. One such era utilizing the ladies collar button extensively was the Gibson Girl and the "shirtwaist".
Collectables Jewelry trademark used by Ronald Taub, Chicago, IL since 1964
Collegiate Jewelry trademark used by Coro Inc since 1940 mainly for compacts, and cigarette cases.
Collet The short tubular band of metal that encloses a stone.
Colonial Jewelry trademark featuring a colonial lady in a circle. Mark was used by Colonial Bead Co. NY for beaded jewelry since 1937. The word "Colonial" was also used alone in marking this jewelry.
Colonna, Edward German jewelry designer in the Art Nouveau/Deco period. Worked for L.C. Tiffany. His mark is stamped "Colonnna" and "SANB" inside a diamond for his Maison De L'Art Nouveau Jewelry designed in 1898
Color A La Carte Jewelry trademark used by Coro Inc., using part or whole precious metals since 1959
Colorado Jade Not jade, but aventurine
Colorama Jewelry trademark used by Coro, Inc NY since 1954
Colorart Jewelry trademark used by the Stylist Spayers, NY since 1955
Colossa Jewelry trademark used by Marvella Pearls, New York since 1958
Columbia Jewelry trademark used by Walter Dorrer/Higbee & Dorrer, Los Angeles for pearl jewelry since 1954
Coltura Jewelry trademark used by Arke, In., NY since 1960
Combs Combs were both functional and ornamental. More ornamental after about 1880. The Gibson Girl popularized it further in the 1920's. Some were highly decorated with gemstones, rhinestones and flowers. No fashionable lady had a ompleted wardrobe without a myriad of combs. Early combs were made of tortoise shell, bone, sterling, gold and silver. By 1900 imitation materials were more popular. Some of the older manufacturers were Nuhorn, Tuf-E-Nuf, Staf, Noyes, Scharder and Ehlers, Sadler Bros who produced real tortoise shell combs as did Wagner Comb Co. of New York.
Come Summer Jewelry trademark used by Avon Products, NY since 1971
Comet Jewelry trademark used by D Swarovwski & Co. Austria since 1957
Commando Jewelry trademark used by Marvel Jewelry Mfg for expansion bracelets since 1942
Commemorative Jewelry or articles worn to commemorate a person or occasion with appropriate design for the occasion.
Commercial Jewelry trademark used by Katz & Ogush Co., Inc. NY since 1946
Commesso Literally - Joined
Compact Small usually hinged case used for containing face powder. Usually accompanied with a mirror and sometimes other compartments. Also See "Flapjack" and "Carryall"
Composition A mixture yielding a material from which something else is made other than ceramic, metal or plastic.
Conceits Used to refer to curiously contrived or fanciful jewelry or accessories which are quanit or have an affected conception which flatters one's vanity. Thus "Conceit". A Neck Conceit (velvet ribboon), waistline clasp, buckles, parasol with a handle to simulate say - a golf club or wheel spikes. Also considered conceits were children's bib pins with engravings such as "baby", chameleon pins, sterling encased mustache combs, ladies hat band buckles, sterling silver hat marks, key rings, umbrella straps, lingeree pins, trunk check tags, armlets, garters, glove buttoners, etc on and on......Sometimes in sterling silver or gold but most likely gold-filled for affordability.
Conch Pearl Variety of salt watere pearl produced by the univalve giant conch or helmet conch. Usually inferior quality for pearls and used for carving cameos or beads.
Concha Belt Belt made by the indians in south western United States in form of a wide leather band on which is affixed a row of convex discs made of silver or shell with turquoise.
Cone One of the most common bead shapes
Conemara Marble Pale green serpentine from Ireland that was made into beads and souvenirs.
Consolidated Cosmetics Perfumery, Chicago IL c. 1930's "Barcelona", "Body and Soul"
Constellation Jewelry trademark used by Coro Inc NY since 1946
Consuelo Jewelry trademark used by Gemex since 1930
Contemporary Jewelry refers to articles made since World War II 1945
Contessa Jewelry trademark used by Albion Jewelers, Chicago since 1955 for plated jewelry
Conventionalization Simplifying or exaggerating of the natural forms
Convertipearl Jewelry trademark used by Elmer Ellsworth and Son, Tulsa OK for pearl jewelry since 1955
Conway, Ros Jewelry designer/artist born 1951 in Bristol, England
Cooper, John Paul English jeweler and silversmith identified in Arts and Crafts movement 1869 - 1933
Ccpal Natural resin from certain tropical trees of Africa especially from Tanzania and Sierra Leone and also of New Zealand. It is used primarily for jewelry in the same manner as amber which is resembles, but is not the same.
Copaline Or Copalitel - Reddish brown resinous substance probably from vegetable matter altered from having been in the earth. Substituted for copal or amber
Copeland, Elizabeth Founded metalware shop in Boston, Mass 1902-1937 specializing in jewelry occasionally incorporating semiprecious stones. Shopmark E.C.
Copley, Noma Jewelry designer/artist born in Minneapolis, MN
Copper Metallic element of red coloring but in natural state is green until oxidation occurs. From Early civiliazations in marking jewelry and cookware.
Copperwood Jewelry trademark used by Renoir of California, Los Angeles since 1959
Coppola E Toppo Italian Jewelry Designers c. 1940-1980's in Milan. Designs contained beautiful beads crafted in Murano. Also accessories, handbags, scarves, etc. Most jewelry is marked using the name. A few pieces were signed "CeT".
Coptic Made by the Copts, an ancient Egyptian sect adhered to Christianity and resisted Islam in the 19th and 20th centuries. Most usual is the Coptic Cross which has four equal arms and a circle at the center. Sometimes with elaborate ornamentation added.
Coral Calcareous skeleton of coral polyp. Polished and carved it was prized highly for Victorian jewelry. Industry centered mostly in Italy. Most jewelry coral comes from there. Favorite colors were salmon red, pale pink (angel skin). Coral was carved into cameos, flowers and fruits, beads of all shapes. Faceted coral beads usually date from the earlier part of the century. Coral is soft and can easily be scratched with a knife blade. When a bit of weak acid (like lemon juice) is dropped on coral is efferveses. This will not happen on plastic or glass. Coral was often worn by Victorian children because it was thought to guard them from all manner of diseases and disasters. It was also believed that coral deepened and paled with its wearer's menstral cycle. Astrologically, coral is under the sign if Pisces and the House of Balance. - Libra. It has bee nvalued through the ages medicinally for protection. Chinese thought coral reprsented a tree called the "T'eb SBU" growing on the ocean floor and flowering only once a century. The tree symbolized longevity. The Romans, as did the Victorians, used coral for their children to protect them. Some cultures even powdered coral and ingested it as a cure. Even early in the 19th century, Navajo Indians count Coral as one of the 18 sacred objects and include it in jewelry and other ornamentation in baskets, etc. It is also thought by dancers, even our ballet, as a good luck charm.
Coral Freeform Coral of a light to dark red color.
Coral, Oxblood Most valued red coral and oldest known coral used for ornamentation
Coral, Pink Coral of a light to medium color
Coral, Salmon Coral of a peachy, salmon color
Coral, White Coral of a white or no color
Corday Perfumery Paris, France/NY c. 1920's "Toujours Moi"
Cordeliere (French) long beaded girdle sometimes worn knotted in front with the ends dangling. Sometimes made with silver beads. Most popular during the 19th century.
Cork Lace Originally it was produced in County Cork, Ireland. Today it is a kind of generic term for all Irish lace. Usually made from fine linen or muslin.
Cornelian Same as carnelian. Varieety of Chalcedony usually flesh redd. Red/Brown variety of agate. A favorite for signet rings and beads.
Cornish Diamond Misnomer for rock cryrstal found in Cornwall, England
Coro Jewelry designer mfg NY since 1919. Used many trademarks including the "Flying Horse". Name came from designers Cohn & Rosenberger, Inc. (Co from Cohn and RO from Rosenberger, Inc.). Many of their marks included the word "Coro" . The mark "Coro" was used 1919-1979; Corocraft 1933-1979; Vendome 1944-1979. Francois was a short-lived line created in 1937 and pieces are becomming very collectible because of this short period of production. Also collectible are the Coro "Duettes", a pair of clips which could also be worn as a brooch due to a unique base. Coro jewelry was quality yet financially available to the American market. Their sometimes whimsical themed jewelry such as the "Jelly Belly" line continues its popularity with collector. (Also see other marks listed above for more information)
Corocraft Mark used by Coro above featuring quality jewelry sometimes in sterling and unique designs.
Coronado Uncas Mfg Co., Providence RI beginning c. 1955
Coronal An arrangement of flowers or jewels worn as a crown. Usually worn by ladies of "rank". Many were made by Domenico Delghirlandaio 1450-1517 for young and
newly wed ladies of Florence, Italy.
Coronation Ring Finger ring used in ceremony of consecration of a Monarch
Coronet Small inferior type of crown especially worn by person of high rank, but lower than a soverign.
Corsair Automatic Gold Chain Co., Providence RI - Later became Speidel Corp.
Corundum Famous gemstone family. Among its members are sapphire and ruby. It is one of the hardest minerals second only to a diamond
Costa Rican Jewelry Pre-Columbian jewelry made c. AD800-1500 in the Diquis and Linea Viaja Regions of what is now Costa Rica
Coste, Zoe French jewelry designer.
Costumakers Lidz Berothers, Inc., NY beginning 1958
Costume Jewelry Various pieces of moderate priced to expensive jewelry usually strass or rhinestone set sometimes in sterling silver.Marcasite, paste and synthetic gemstones were also used - some cemented and some hand set. The term "Costume" jewelry was said to be coined by Flo Ziegfield when determining what to call the jewelry designed by Hobe' for the Ziegfield Follies.
Cotiere (French) Elaborate long chain with pendant worn by ladies of the French Court. Most popular during the renaissance.
Cotillion Jewelry trademark for E Coplan Sons, Baltimore MD, Cuffliks, etc. since 1943
Coty Perfumer, Paris, NY c. 1920's "Ambre Antitque", "Emeraude", "Imprevu". Cosmetic mgmt and accessory designer.
Coultas, Wilhelmina Founded metalsmith shop primary jewelry in Chicago from 1910-23 undetermined shopmark
Counterfeit Article made or sold with intent to deceive the purchaser who believes the article to be genuine
Court Jester Jewelry trademark used by Coro beginning in 1955 for misc. jewelry items.
Courreges, Andre Spanish basque opening his courture house in 1961. Debuting the mini-skirts and go-go boots already in vogue. He was popular for the introduction of the "stove pipe" trousers
Courtly Jewelry mark used by Leo Glass & Company, Inc. NY since 1946
Coventry, Sarah Jewelry originally sold a home parties 1950-60. Discontinued in 1984. The Coventry name was sold in 1984 to a Canadian Company where it will continue to be made using the Coventry logo. Beautiful designs are becomming more collectible. Also see "Emmons"
Cover Girl Jewelry mark used by Lefcourte Cosmetics Co., NY beginning 1944
Cover Girl Jewelry mark used by Revoc, Inc. NY (Mark featured figure of a girl) since 1945
Cowrie Shell Used in the making of beads, currency and cameos
Countes "Cis" Zolotowska French Jewelry Designer
Couturier, Jean Perfumer, Paris, France 1970's "Coriandre"
Cracked Porcelain Having appearance of tiny closely placed cracks. Used in jewelry, glass and sometimes used to indicate age. * or deliberate fractures done as a design.
Cradle Craft Jewelry mfg mark used by Vargas Mfg Co., Providence RI beginning 1946
Craftmaid Jewelry mark used by Craftmaid Mfg in Brooklyn NY since 1945
Cranch, Wilhelm, Lucas Van 1861-1918 German painter/jeweler in the Art Nouveau style- Mark WLC
Cravat Pin Tie Pin
Craver, Margaret Jewelry designer/artist born in Kansas, MO
Creole Earrings Crescent shaped earrings with a wider bottom than top. They were very poplar around the middle of the 19th century
Crocodile Grip Hickok Manufacturing, Rochester NY mark used for mens jewelry since 1946
Croix A La Jeanette Jewelry in the form of a heart with a cross suspended. Considered French peasant jewelry c. 1835
Croix De Saint Lo French peasant jewelry ih form of a cross composed of 5 gemstones or strauss, one set in the center and one forming each of the four arms of the cross, the lowest being the largest and sometimes in pendaloque form
Croninger, Cara Lee Contemporary studio designer/artist specializing in plastics, acrylics
Cross An ornamental or devotional article of jewelry in the form of an upright joined by a horizontal arm or traversed arm as in a Latin cros. Many different forms and materials. Traditional religious symbol. In Christianity it represents the crucifixion and symbolizes salvation. The Latin cross is used and has a longer upright than crossbar. The Greek cross has arms of equal length. The Egyptian cross or "Tau" has the shape of a "T" when the "T" is sued with a circle, it represents eternal preservation of the world. The St. Andrews Cross is in the shape of an "X". Crosses through the ages have been made as simple as wood or metal or as elaborate as gold encrusted, enameled and with gems.
Crossover Ring Finger ring with the shank exceeding a full circle and wrapped around the finger so that the two terminals overlap and lie beside eacch other. Can also be in the form of a bracelet.
Crown In jewelry, the top part of a cut gemstone or the portion above the girdle. Also the name for the headpiece of a King or Queen usually elaborately bejeweled
Crown Prince Jewelry mark used by Weinreich Bros Co NY for their pearl jewelry beginning in 1949
Crusader Jewelry mark used by J J White Mfg Co., RI for plated items since 1923
Crystal Simply - quartz or silicon dioxide. We think of it to be clear and thre Greeks believed it to be clear water which had solidified. Quartz, however, comes in many colors and is called by many other names. It is popular for jewelry and it the birthstone for the month of April. In Scotland crystal was called "Stone of Victory" and would use the water washing over crystal to cure sickness. Mexican Indian tribes believed souls of the dead were contained in crystal and in Australia it was usedto bring rain during a drought.
Crystal Palace Often referred to when reading about jewelry designs, it was a giant greenhouse like structure built in London by Joseph Paxton for the great exhibition at Hyde Park in 1851. Many innovative designs in jewelry and other ornamentation were introduced by designers of the period. After the exhibition it was a "Tourist attraction until it burned down in 1936. The image of The Crystal Palace is often used in ornamentation.
Crystalette Jewelry mmark used by Joseph H Meyer Bros, Brooklyn beginning c. 1957
Crystals Rock crystal beads or clear glass beads faceted to resemble rock crystal; crystals are also the orderly form some minerals take when formed in nature.
Cubic Zirconia Synthetic gemstone that is a stmulant for a diamond. They have been produced since 1977
Cuff Bracelet Type of rigid bracelet made in the form of a wide cylindrical band usually tapering in one direction and having an opening. Popular since ancient times. French term is Manchette.
Cuff Link Device used to join temporarily the two ends of the cuff around the wearer's wrist without overlapping the cuff ends. Sometimes called Sleeve Buttons or Sleeve Fasteners. Popular manufacturers include Swank, Hickok, Anson, Spiedel, Zentall, Krementz. Figural cuff links seem to be the most collectible in the modern category. The snap aparts with their celluloid inserts are also collectible but are difficult to find in sets.
Cuff Pact Jewelry mark used by S Packales & Co., NY for unusual items since 1957
Cuivre French for copper
Cuivre Dore' French for guilded copper
Cuivre Juane French for Brass
Culet Small facet cut on the base of some brilliant-cut or old mine cut diamonds
Cultured Pearls Formed in the oyster but induced by Man. A small grain or foreign substance is inserted into the oyster. Nacre, an iridescent shell like substande forms around the grain to protect the oyster. Instead it is his downfall. In a few years people will come looking for the pearl and usually then find it. This process was originated and patented by a Japanese noodle peddler, Kokichi Mikimoto in 1896 and made him a billionaire. All pearls, cultured and oriental (natural) will floresce under black light. (as will some fake pearls made with fish scales). so this is no actual test. Still for all the difficulty in distinguishing cultured from natural pearls,the natural ones are worth many times the price of cultured ones.
Cupelliform Brooch shaped like a saucer or shallow cupel or cup
Cupid Used in ornamentation - See Cherub
Cupid Jewelry mark used by Baroda Pearl Co., Inc NY for their pearl jewelry
Curb Chain Refers to chain of twisted oval links that lie flat
Currency Jewelery Jewelry used as special purpose currency than primarily for ornamental wear.
Curtis Creation Jewelry mark used by the Curtman Co., Inc. Providence RI beginning 1941
Curtis, De Jewelry mark of Curtis Jewelry Mfg Co., Providence RI since 1951
Curtis, Helene Perfumery - Chicago, ILL c. 1950 "Cabana", "Pink Lady" "Tweedie"
Curvette Type of cameo carved where the background of thte design is concave and the edge or rim of the stone is the same level as the highest part of the central design.
Curvo Gram Mark used by Anderson Tool & Die Works, Inc. Providence RI for their stampings
Cushion Cut Brilliant cut diamond or other gem that is square shaped with rounded corners
Cusped Comes to a point
Cut Steel Small beads of faceted steel once used to immitate marcasite Popular around 1760 unti late 19th century
Cut Steel In jewelry - set with cut steel faceted "gems" popular during the 18th century as a substitute for diamonds and beautifully made in their own right. Each "gel" was carefully cut and studded by hand. This jewelry declined in the 19th century and its high standard of workmanship gave way to cheaper machine made jewelry. Now a sutstitute for the humble marcasite. Early cut steel is beautiful, highly collectible and very wearable.
Cutting Process and art of shaping a precious stone
Cuzner, Bernard Arts and Crafts movement silversmith and jewelry 1877-1956 influenced by Arthur Gaskin. Cuzner did jewelry designs for Liberty & Co.. Mark "BC"
CW Trademark used by Carol Weinberg. Contemporary jewelry designer. See Weinberg
Cyma Curve S Shaped Curve
Cymric Trade name for Liberty &Co. in London adopted in 1899 for jewelry and silver articles some designed by leading Arts and Crafts movement designers and many Art Nouveau pieces.
Cypriote Jewlery Articles produced on the island of Cypress from c. 2000 BC onwards
Czarina Jewelry trademark used by Coro, NY since 1950
Czeschka, Carl Otto Jewelry designer/artist born 1878 - Died 1960. In Kunstgewerbeschule, Vienna